This report (18 page PDF) looks at data from a marketing and brand perspective, but offers a useful perspective for any digital enterprise, including education. It is based on "the need for a baseline understanding of how different types of data can enhance business performance for brands when used properly." It surveys four levels of data needs (and uses), a number of dataset types, and a typology based on data ownership. It's terse, but it draws out and makes clear some key aspects of data.
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